Einstern 1

einstern 1

Einstern 1. Themenhefte von Roland Bauer, Jutta Maurach - Buch aus der Kategorie Schulbücher allgemein günstig und portofrei bestellen im Online Shop . Individuelles Lernen/DifferenzierungEinige Kinder haben alle Arbeitsaufträge längst erledigt, andere benötigen noch Zeit und Hilfe - hier ist Einstern genau. Einstern · Mathematik für KinderNeubearbeitung · Band 1Themenhefte und Kartonbeilagen mit Schuber Verbrauchsmaterial. Themen- und.

Även om det var Voigt som först formulerade de grundläggande sambanden , lyckades Einstein härleda Lorentz variant av dessa ur en mer grundläggande teori.

Den speciella relativitetsteorin kan däremot inte beskriva rörelser i varierande gravitationsfält. Speciella relativitetsteorin är numera universellt accepterad av det vetenskapliga samfundet.

Det har dock funnits och finns än i dag forskare som har föreslagit alternativ. Notera att ljusets hastighet i ett medium är lägre än i vakuum.

Den speciella relativitetsteorin avvisar föreställningen om att det existerar ett överordnat referenssystem för mätning av tid och rum.

Postulatet kan ses redan hos Galilei , och är en del av den Newtonska fysiken. Ett inertialsystem är koordinatsystem där Newtons första lag , tröghetslagen , gäller.

Alla inertialsystem är ekvivalenta och mekanikens lagar gäller i samtliga. Inertialsystem spelar en avgörande roll i relativitetsteorin.

En händelse är en förekomst som kan tilldelas en enda unik tid och plats i rummet relativt ett inertialsystem: Exempelvis kan explosionen av ett fyrverkeri vara en "händelse".

Vi kan fullständigt beskriva händelsen med sina fyra rumtidskoordinater: Inom relativitetsteorin vill vi ofta kunna växla mellan att beskriva positionen för en punkt i ett specifikt inertialsystem till ett annat.

Hastighets- och accelerationssambanden mellan S och S' presenteras i Lorentztransformationens huvudartikel.

Speciella relativitetsteorins postulat om konstant ljushastighet och avsaknad av absoluta referenssystem har flera konsekvenser som intuitivt kan uppfattas som bisarra.

Här läggs tiden till som en fjärde dimension, som oftast tas som den nollte dimensionen. Enligt konvention väljs att sätta minustecken framför rumskoordinaterna och plustecken framför tiden.

Andra typer av rörelser ger andra typer av kurvor. Formeln visar att massa, ur relativistisk synvinkel, är proportionell mot eller ekvivalent med energi.

Detta demonstreras tydligt av att stora mängder energi — om än svarande mot obetydlig massa — kan frigöras vid kärnreaktioner.

Den 4-dimensionella rumtiden beskrivs bäst genom att använda 4-dimensionella vektorer. En allmän kontravariant 4-vektor.

And that is a very remarkable statement. The Einsteins were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews , and Albert attended a Catholic elementary school in Munich, from the age of 5, for three years.

At the age of 8, he was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium now known as the Albert Einstein Gymnasium , where he received advanced primary and secondary school education until he left the German Empire seven years later.

In , Hermann and Jakob's company lost a bid to supply the city of Munich with electrical lighting because they lacked the capital to convert their equipment from the direct current DC standard to the more efficient alternating current AC standard.

In search of business, the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and a few months later to Pavia. When the family moved to Pavia, Einstein, then 15, stayed in Munich to finish his studies at the Luitpold Gymnasium.

His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering , but Einstein clashed with authorities and resented the school's regimen and teaching method.

He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought was lost in strict rote learning. At the end of December , he travelled to Italy to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note.

Einstein always excelled at math and physics from a young age, reaching a mathematical level years ahead of his peers.

The twelve year old Einstein taught himself algebra and Euclidean geometry over a single summer. Einstein also independently discovered his own original proof of the Pythagorean theorem at age He thereupon devoted himself to higher mathematics Soon the flight of his mathematical genius was so high I could not follow.

At age 13, Einstein was introduced to Kant 's Critique of Pure Reason , and Kant became his favorite philosopher, his tutor stating: He failed to reach the required standard in the general part of the examination, [26] but obtained exceptional grades in physics and mathematics.

While lodging with the family of professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with Winteler's daughter, Marie. Albert's sister Maja later married Winteler's son Paul.

Marie Winteler, who was a year older, moved to Olsberg , Switzerland, for a teaching post. She was the only woman among the six students in the mathematics and physics section of the teaching diploma course.

In , Einstein passed the exams in Maths and Physics and was awarded the Federal Polytechnic teaching diploma. The contents of Einstein's letter in September suggest that the girl was either given up for adoption or died of scarlet fever in infancy.

Their son Eduard was born in Zürich in July In letters revealed in , Einstein wrote to his early love Marie Winteler about his marriage and his strong feelings for her.

He wrote in , while his wife was pregnant with their second child: He spoke about a "misguided love" and a "missed life" regarding his love for Marie.

Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal in , [45] [46] after having a relationship with her since Elsa was diagnosed with heart and kidney problems in and died in December Posin , Maurice Solovine , and Stephen Wise.

After graduating in , Einstein spent almost two frustrating years searching for a teaching post. He acquired Swiss citizenship in February , [50] but for medical reasons was not conscripted.

With the help of Marcel Grossmann 's father, he secured a job in Bern at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property , the patent office, [51] [52] as an assistant examiner — level III.

Einstein evaluated patent applications for a variety of devices including a gravel sorter and an electromechanical typewriter.

Much of his work at the patent office related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical—mechanical synchronization of time, two technical problems that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that eventually led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time.

With a few friends he had met in Bern, Einstein started a small discussion group in , self-mockingly named " The Olympia Academy ", which met regularly to discuss science and philosophy.

In , Einstein's paper "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen" "Conclusions from the Capillarity Phenomena" was published in the journal Annalen der Physik.

In that same year, which has been called Einstein's annus mirabilis miracle year , he published four groundbreaking papers , on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion , special relativity , and the equivalence of mass and energy, which were to bring him to the notice of the academic world, at the age of By , he was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern.

The following year, after giving a lecture on electrodynamics and the relativity principle at the University of Zürich, Alfred Kleiner recommended him to the faculty for a newly created professorship in theoretical physics.

Einstein was appointed associate professor in In July , he returned to his alma mater in Zürich. From until , he was professor of theoretical physics at the ETH Zurich , where he taught analytical mechanics and thermodynamics.

He also studied continuum mechanics , the molecular theory of heat, and the problem of gravitation, on which he worked with mathematician and friend Marcel Grossmann.

Max Planck and Walther Nernst visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post of director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics , which was soon to be established.

He was officially elected to the academy on 24 July, and he accepted to move to the German Empire the next year. His decision to move to Berlin was also influenced by the prospect of living near his cousin Elsa, with whom he had developed a romantic affair.

He joined the academy and thus the Berlin University on 1 April The institute was established on 1 October , with Einstein as its director. Based on calculations Einstein made in , about his new theory of general relativity, light from another star should be bent by the Sun's gravity.

In , that prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May Those observations were published in the international media, making Einstein world famous.

On 7 November , the leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 April , where he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylan , followed by three weeks of lectures and receptions.

He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton University , and in Washington he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science on a visit to the White House.

On his return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and philosopher Viscount Haldane in London, where he met several renowned scientific, intellectual and political figures, and delivered a lecture at King's College London.

He also published an essay, "My First Impression of the U. The American is friendly, self-confident, optimistic, and without envy. In , his travels took him to Asia and later to Palestine, as part of a six-month excursion and speaking tour, as he visited Singapore , Ceylon and Japan , where he gave a series of lectures to thousands of Japanese.

After his first public lecture, he met the emperor and empress at the Imperial Palace , where thousands came to watch. In a letter to his sons, he described his impression of the Japanese as being modest, intelligent, considerate, and having a true feel for art.

Because of Einstein's travels to the Far East, he was unable to personally accept the Nobel Prize for Physics at the Stockholm award ceremony in December In his place, the banquet speech was held by a German diplomat, who praised Einstein not only as a scientist but also as an international peacemaker and activist.

On his return voyage, he visited Palestine for 12 days in what would become his only visit to that region. He was greeted as if he were a head of state, rather than a physicist, which included a cannon salute upon arriving at the home of the British high commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel.

During one reception, the building was stormed by people who wanted to see and hear him. In Einstein's talk to the audience, he expressed happiness that the Jewish people were beginning to be recognized as a force in the world.

From to , Einstein was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations in Geneva with a few months of interruption in — , [79] a body created to promote international exchange between scientists, researchers, teachers, artists and intellectuals.

In December , Einstein visited America for the second time, originally intended as a two-month working visit as a research fellow at the California Institute of Technology.

After the national attention he received during his first trip to the US, he and his arrangers aimed to protect his privacy.

Although swamped with telegrams and invitations to receive awards or speak publicly, he declined them all. After arriving in New York City, Einstein was taken to various places and events, including Chinatown , a lunch with the editors of The New York Times , and a performance of Carmen at the Metropolitan Opera , where he was cheered by the audience on his arrival.

During the days following, he was given the keys to the city by Mayor Jimmy Walker and met the president of Columbia University, who described Einstein as "the ruling monarch of the mind".

His friendship with Millikan was "awkward", as Millikan "had a penchant for patriotic militarism," where Einstein was a pronounced pacifist.

This aversion to war also led Einstein to befriend author Upton Sinclair and film star Charlie Chaplin , both noted for their pacifism. Carl Laemmle , head of Universal Studios , gave Einstein a tour of his studio and introduced him to Chaplin.

They had an instant rapport, with Chaplin inviting Einstein and his wife, Elsa, to his home for dinner. Chaplin said Einstein's outward persona, calm and gentle, seemed to conceal a "highly emotional temperament," from which came his "extraordinary intellectual energy".

Chaplin's film, City Lights , was to premiere a few days later in Hollywood, and Chaplin invited Einstein and Elsa to join him as his special guests.

Walter Isaacson , Einstein's biographer, described this as "one of the most memorable scenes in the new era of celebrity".

Chaplin speculated that it was "possibly used as kindling wood by the Nazis. In February while on a visit to the United States, Einstein knew he could not return to Germany with the rise to power of the Nazis under Germany's new chancellor, Adolf Hitler.

While at American universities in early , he undertook his third two-month visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

He and his wife Elsa returned to Belgium by ship in March, and during the trip they learned that their cottage was raided by the Nazis and his personal sailboat confiscated.

Upon landing in Antwerp on 28 March, he immediately went to the German consulate and surrendered his passport, formally renouncing his German citizenship.

In April , Einstein discovered that the new German government had passed laws barring Jews from holding any official positions, including teaching at universities.

A month later, Einstein's works were among those targeted by the German Student Union in the Nazi book burnings , with Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels proclaiming, "Jewish intellectualism is dead.

I must confess that the degree of their brutality and cowardice came as something of a surprise.

Einstein was now without a permanent home, unsure where he would live and work, and equally worried about the fate of countless other scientists still in Germany.

He rented a house in De Haan, Belgium, where he lived for a few months. In late July , he went to England for about six weeks at the personal invitation of British naval officer Commander Oliver Locker-Lampson , who had become friends with Einstein in the preceding years.

To protect Einstein, Locker-Lampson had two assistants watch over him at his secluded cottage outside London, with photo of them carrying shotguns and guarding Einstein, published in the Daily Herald on 24 July British historian Martin Gilbert notes that Churchill responded immediately, and sent his friend, physicist Frederick Lindemann , to Germany to seek out Jewish scientists and place them in British universities.

As a result of Einstein's letter, Jewish invitees to Turkey eventually totaled over "1, saved individuals". Locker-Lampson also submitted a bill to parliament to extend British citizenship to Einstein, during which period Einstein made a number of public appearances describing the crisis brewing in Europe.

In October Einstein returned to the US and took up a position at the Institute for Advanced Study, [98] [] noted for having become a refuge for scientists fleeing Nazi Germany.

Einstein was still undecided on his future. He had offers from several European universities, including Christ Church, Oxford where he stayed for three short periods between May and June and was offered a 5-year studentship, [] [] but in he arrived at the decision to remain permanently in the United States and apply for citizenship.

Einstein's affiliation with the Institute for Advanced Study would last until his death in The two would take long walks together discussing their work.

Bruria Kaufman , his assistant, later became a physicist. During this period, Einstein tried to develop a unified field theory and to refute the accepted interpretation of quantum physics , both unsuccessfully.

The group's warnings were discounted. The letter is believed to be "arguably the key stimulus for the U. Some say that as a result of Einstein's letter and his meetings with Roosevelt, the US entered the "race" to develop the bomb, drawing on its "immense material, financial, and scientific resources" to initiate the Manhattan Project.

For Einstein, "war was a disease Einstein became an American citizen in Not long after settling into his career at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey , he expressed his appreciation of the meritocracy in American culture when compared to Europe.

He recognized the "right of individuals to say and think what they pleased", without social barriers, and as a result, individuals were encouraged, he said, to be more creative, a trait he valued from his own early education.

In his travel diaries from his visit to Asia, he expresses xenophobic and racist judgments on the Chinese, Japanese and Indian people he saw.

He considered racism America's "worst disease," [91] seeing it as "handed down from one generation to the next".

Du Bois and was prepared to testify on his behalf during his trial in In Einstein visited Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, a historically black college , where he was awarded an honorary degree.

Lincoln was the first university in the United States to grant college degrees to African Americans ; alumni include Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall.

Einstein gave a speech about racism in America, adding, "I do not intend to be quiet about it. Einstein was a figurehead leader in helping establish the Hebrew University of Jerusalem , which opened in , and was among its first Board of Governors.

Earlier, in , he was asked by the biochemist and president of the World Zionist Organization , Chaim Weizmann , to help raise funds for the planned university.

Among those, he advised first creating an Institute of Agriculture in order to settle the undeveloped land. That should be followed, he suggested, by a Chemical Institute and an Institute of Microbiology, to fight the various ongoing epidemics such as malaria , which he called an "evil" that was undermining a third of the country's development.

Chaim Weizmann later became Israel's first president. Einstein developed an appreciation for music at an early age, and later wrote: I often think in music.

I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music I get most joy in life out of music. His mother played the piano reasonably well and wanted her son to learn the violin , not only to instill in him a love of music but also to help him assimilate into German culture.

According to conductor Leon Botstein , Einstein began playing when he was 5, although he did not enjoy it at that age. When he turned 13, he discovered the violin sonatas of Mozart , whereupon "Einstein fell in love" with Mozart's music and studied music more willingly.

He taught himself to play without "ever practicing systematically", he said, deciding that "love is a better teacher than a sense of duty.

Music possessed an unusual meaning for this student. Music took on a pivotal and permanent role in Einstein's life from that period on.

Although the idea of becoming a professional musician himself was not on his mind at any time, among those with whom Einstein played chamber music were a few professionals, and he performed for private audiences and friends.

Chamber music had also become a regular part of his social life while living in Bern, Zürich, and Berlin, where he played with Max Planck and his son, among others.

He is sometimes erroneously credited as the editor of the edition of the Köchel catalogue of Mozart's work; that edition was prepared by Alfred Einstein , who may have been a distant relation.

In , while engaged in research at the California Institute of Technology, he visited the Zoellner family conservatory in Los Angeles, where he played some of Beethoven and Mozart's works with members of the Zoellner Quartet.

Einstein's political view was in favor of socialism and critical of capitalism, which he detailed in his essays such as " Why Socialism? Einstein was deeply impressed by Mahatma Gandhi.

He exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a letter writing about him.

Einstein spoke of his spiritual outlook in a wide array of original writings and interviews. And one life is enough for me. He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York , [] and was an honorary associate of the Rationalist Association , which publishes New Humanist in Britain.

For the seventy-fifth anniversary of the New York Society for Ethical Culture , he stated that the idea of Ethical Culture embodied his personal conception of what is most valuable and enduring in religious idealism.

He observed, "Without 'ethical culture' there is no salvation for humanity. On 17 April , Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm , which had previously been reinforced surgically by Rudolph Nissen in Einstein refused surgery, saying, "I want to go when I want.

It is tasteless to prolong life artificially. I have done my share; it is time to go. I will do it elegantly. During the autopsy, the pathologist of Princeton Hospital, Thomas Stoltz Harvey , removed Einstein's brain for preservation without the permission of his family, in the hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.

There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn. Throughout his life, Einstein published hundreds of books and articles.

These four works contributed substantially to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space , time, and matter. The four papers are:.

Einstein's first paper [] submitted in to Annalen der Physik was on capillary attraction. It was published in with the title "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen", which translates as "Conclusions from the capillarity phenomena".

Two papers he published in — thermodynamics attempted to interpret atomic phenomena from a statistical point of view.

These papers were the foundation for the paper on Brownian motion, which showed that Brownian movement can be construed as firm evidence that molecules exist.

His research in and was mainly concerned with the effect of finite atomic size on diffusion phenomena. Einstein returned to the problem of thermodynamic fluctuations, giving a treatment of the density variations in a fluid at its critical point.

Ordinarily the density fluctuations are controlled by the second derivative of the free energy with respect to the density.

At the critical point, this derivative is zero, leading to large fluctuations. The effect of density fluctuations is that light of all wavelengths is scattered, making the fluid look milky white.

Einstein relates this to Rayleigh scattering , which is what happens when the fluctuation size is much smaller than the wavelength, and which explains why the sky is blue.

Einstein's " Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper " [] "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" was received on 30 June and published 26 September of that same year.

It reconciled conflicts between Maxwell's equations the laws of electricity and magnetism and the laws of Newtonian mechanics by introducing changes to the laws of mechanics.

The theory developed in this paper later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper predicted that, when measured in the frame of a relatively moving observer, a clock carried by a moving body would appear to slow down , and the body itself would contract in its direction of motion.

This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether —one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous.

Einstein originally framed special relativity in terms of kinematics the study of moving bodies. In , Hermann Minkowski reinterpreted special relativity in geometric terms as a theory of spacetime.

Einstein adopted Minkowski's formalism in his general theory of relativity. General relativity GR is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Einstein between and According to general relativity , the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the warping of space and time by those masses.

General relativity has developed into an essential tool in modern astrophysics. It provides the foundation for the current understanding of black holes , regions of space where gravitational attraction is so strong that not even light can escape.

As Einstein later said, the reason for the development of general relativity was that the preference of inertial motions within special relativity was unsatisfactory, while a theory which from the outset prefers no state of motion even accelerated ones should appear more satisfactory.

In that article titled "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from It", he argued that free fall is really inertial motion, and that for a free-falling observer the rules of special relativity must apply.

This argument is called the equivalence principle. In the same article, Einstein also predicted the phenomena of gravitational time dilation , gravitational red shift and deflection of light.

In , Einstein published another article "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light" expanding on the article, in which he estimated the amount of deflection of light by massive bodies.

Thus, the theoretical prediction of general relativity could for the first time be tested experimentally. In , Einstein predicted gravitational waves , [] [] ripples in the curvature of spacetime which propagate as waves , traveling outward from the source, transporting energy as gravitational radiation.

The existence of gravitational waves is possible under general relativity due to its Lorentz invariance which brings the concept of a finite speed of propagation of the physical interactions of gravity with it.

By contrast, gravitational waves cannot exist in the Newtonian theory of gravitation , which postulates that the physical interactions of gravity propagate at infinite speed.

While developing general relativity, Einstein became confused about the gauge invariance in the theory. He formulated an argument that led him to conclude that a general relativistic field theory is impossible.

He gave up looking for fully generally covariant tensor equations, and searched for equations that would be invariant under general linear transformations only.

In June , the Entwurf "draft" theory was the result of these investigations. As its name suggests, it was a sketch of a theory, less elegant and more difficult than general relativity, with the equations of motion supplemented by additional gauge fixing conditions.

After more than two years of intensive work, Einstein realized that the hole argument was mistaken [] and abandoned the theory in November In , Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to the structure of the universe as a whole.

As observational evidence for a dynamic universe was not known at the time, Einstein introduced a new term, the cosmological constant , to the field equations, in order to allow the theory to predict a static universe.

The modified field equations predicted a static universe of closed curvature, in accordance with Einstein's understanding of Mach's principle in these years.

This model became known as the Einstein World or Einstein's static universe. Following the discovery of the recession of the nebulae by Edwin Hubble in , Einstein abandoned his static model of the universe, and proposed two dynamic models of the cosmos, The Friedmann-Einstein universe of [] [] and the Einstein—de Sitter universe of In many Einstein biographies, it is claimed that Einstein referred to the cosmological constant in later years as his "biggest blunder".

The astrophysicist Mario Livio has recently cast doubt on this claim, suggesting that it may be exaggerated. In late , a team led by the Irish physicist Cormac O'Raifeartaigh discovered evidence that, shortly after learning of Hubble's observations of the recession of the nebulae, Einstein considered a steady-state model of the universe.

For the density to remain constant, new particles of matter must be continually formed in the volume from space. It thus appears that Einstein considered a steady-state model of the expanding universe many years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold.

General relativity includes a dynamical spacetime, so it is difficult to see how to identify the conserved energy and momentum. Noether's theorem allows these quantities to be determined from a Lagrangian with translation invariance , but general covariance makes translation invariance into something of a gauge symmetry.

The energy and momentum derived within general relativity by Noether's prescriptions do not make a real tensor for this reason.

Einstein argued that this is true for fundamental reasons, because the gravitational field could be made to vanish by a choice of coordinates.

He maintained that the non-covariant energy momentum pseudotensor was in fact the best description of the energy momentum distribution in a gravitational field.

This approach has been echoed by Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz , and others, and has become standard. The use of non-covariant objects like pseudotensors was heavily criticized in by Erwin Schrödinger and others.

In , Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole , often called Einstein—Rosen bridges.

These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged.

These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way.

In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion.

This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s. The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations.

Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves, not by a new law.

So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself.

This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects.

In a paper, [] Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta. Einstein's light quanta were nearly universally rejected by all physicists, including Max Planck and Niels Bohr.

This idea only became universally accepted in , with Robert Millikan 's detailed experiments on the photoelectric effect, and with the measurement of Compton scattering.

Einstein concluded that each wave of frequency f is associated with a collection of photons with energy hf each, where h is Planck's constant.

He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave. But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.

In , Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator.

In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator. Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics.

Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems.

After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.

Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process.

Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.

Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles.

Einstein noted that Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik.

Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.

Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University.

Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia. In , he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern.

This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics.

Einstein saw this wave—particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation.

In a series of works completed from to , Planck reformulated his quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory".

Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data.

The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy.

In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.

This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws.

Einstein discovered Louis de Broglie 's work and supported his ideas, which were received skeptically at first. In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics.

This paper would inspire Schrödinger's work of Einstein was displeased with modern quantum mechanics as it had evolved after Contrary to popular belief, his doubts were not due to a conviction that God "is not playing at dice.

Einstein believed that a physical reality exists independent of our ability to observe it. In contrast, Bohr and his followers maintained that all we can know are the results of measurements and observations, and that it makes no sense to speculate about an ultimate reality that exists beyond our perceptions.

The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr , who were two of its founders.

Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. In , Einstein returned to the question of quantum mechanics in the "EPR paper".

No matter how far the two particles were separated, a precise position measurement on one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the position of the other particle; likewise a precise momentum measurement of one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the momentum of the other particle, without needing to disturb the other particle in any way.

Given Einstein's concept of local realism , there were two possibilities: Einstein rejected this second possibility popularly called "spooky action at a distance".

This principle distilled the essence of Einstein's objection to quantum mechanics. As a physical principle, it was shown to be incorrect when the Aspect experiment of confirmed Bell's theorem , which J.

Bell had delineated in The results of these and subsequent experiments demonstrate that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the classical picture of physics.

Although Einstein was wrong, his clear prediction of the unusual properties of entangled quantum states has resulted in the EPR paper becoming among the top ten papers published in Physical Review.

It is considered a centerpiece of the development of quantum information theory. Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity.

In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation".

In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well understood until many years after his death.

Mainstream physics, in turn, largely ignored Einstein's approaches to unification. Einstein's dream of unifying other laws of physics with gravity motivates modern quests for a theory of everything and in particular string theory , where geometrical fields emerge in a unified quantum-mechanical setting.

Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other research.

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