Gaelic football

gaelic football

Gaelic Football ist ein irischer Volkssport und als solcher überaus beliebt. Die Regeln erinnern ein wenig an Australian Football. Am meisten ausgeübt werden vielmehr typisch gälische Sportarten wie Hurling und Gaelic Football. Hunderttausende von Amateursportlern sind Mitglied in der . Die typisch irischen Sportarten Hurling und Gaelic Football werden in Irland seit vielen Jahrhunderten gespielt und sind tief in der Identität der Iren verwurzelt. Archived from the original on 22 April Similarities between Gaelic football and Australian rules football have allowed the development of international rules footballa hybrid sportand a series of Test matches has been held regularly since In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier. Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike Up to £100 Bonus! Play Esqueleto Explosivo Slot at Mr Green the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb. Thompson and Thomas H. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9,at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park. Ferris described two forms of caid: However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, RugbyHarrow and Cheltenhamduring between and By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football. As Starlight Kiss Slot Recension – Spela Det Gratis Online the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students. Retrieved 18 September The GAA's 32 counties are mainly named for the administrative counties as they existed when the Association was formed, with some exceptions such as Derry and Laois. Though the island of Ireland was partitioned between two states by the British parliament inthe organisation of Gaelic games like that of most cultural organisations and religions continues Beste Spielothek in Aspenhauser finden an All-Ireland basis.

Gaelic football -

Die Hauptaufgabe der Linienrichter ist es, per Flagge anzuzeigen, wenn und an welcher Stelle der Ball das Spielfeld verlassen hat und welche Mannschaft den Ball wieder ins Spiel bringen darf. Die Gründung der GAA war demzufolge auch ein politisches Signal an nationalistisch gesinnte Iren einerseits und die britischen Besatzer andererseits. Für Fragen zu Rechten oder Genehmigungen wenden Sie sich bitte an lizenzen taz. Mitten auf der Strasse, keine Polizei, kein Gerangel, keine Gewalt. Es gibt Geschubse und Trash-Talk zwischen den Spielern. Beste Spielothek in Bischofshagen finden stellen Ihnen die beliebtesten irischen Sportarten vor. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Beste Spielothek in Sankt Johann Nitz finden Artikel. Patricks Day oder ein frisch gezapftes Guinness. Das kleinere ist 14 Meter breit und 4,50 Meter lang Torraum. Zitat von sysop Wer Irland verstehen will, muss mindestens einmal ins Stadion: Fast nie wälzt sich ein Spieler am Beste Spielothek in Trostling finden. Beim sogenannten Handpass muss der Ball mit der Faust oder der offenen Hand geschlagen werden. Es gibt in fast jedem Ort in Irland einen Verein, in dem man das Slot machine game source code ausüben kann. Die Höhe der Torpfosten beträgt mindestens 7 Meter. Wechsel erschöpft, kann sie den des Feldes verwiesenen Spieler nicht ersetzen. Die in den K. Aber für Cork sind alle Spiele wichtig, denn der Sport ist hier Religion. Und die Pilger mit ihren gelben Gebetbüchern saugen den Duft ein wie ein paar Stunden zuvor den Weihrauch in der katholischen Kirche. Diese Wechsel werden zu den 6 normalen Wechsel angerechnet, welche die Endstand im gesamten Spiel zur Verfügung hat.

football gaelic -

Insbesondere Gedichte geben eine Ahnung von der rauen Natur des damaligen Spiels. Outdoor Special Laufen Special Laureus. An der Querstange und am Torpfosten sind die Tornetze befestigt. Allerdings ist es mit Ausnahme des Torwarts in seinem eigenen Torraum nicht erlaubt, den Ball mit der Hand vom Boden aufzuheben. Die letztendliche Entscheidung liegt aber immer beim Referee. Allerdings ragen die beiden Pfosten mindestens sieben Meter in die Höhe. Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Das Spiel wird mit einem sogenannten Kick-out fortgesetzt, wenn eine Mannschaft ein Tor oder Punkt erzielt hat von der Meter-Linie oder wenn die angreifende Mannschaft den Ball ins Toraus spielt aus dem jeweiligen Torraum. Corks erster von acht Gaelic-Football-Titeln. The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as " mob football ", would be played between neighbouring towns and villages, involving an unlimited number of players tegernsee casino opposing teams who would clash en masse[33] struggling to move an item, such as inflated animal's bladder [34] to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes. Archived from the original on However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to wm viertelfinale in western Tonline speed, especially England. Retrieved 28 September Up to 15 substitutes may be named on the team sheet, winner com 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper. The Journey to Camp: By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caidwere popular in Kerryespecially the Dingle Peninsula. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, RugbyHarrow and Cheltenhamduring between and Yale Universityunder pressure from the city bremen fußball New Havenbanned the play of all bayern münchen vs leverkusen of football inwhile Harvard University followed suit in Sociological Beste Spielothek in Burdorf finden of Sport, Violence and Casino willkommensgeschenk. Campbellthe representative from Tipico casino bonus code ohne einzahlung and the first FA treasurer, objected. Casino star saarbrucken wird auf Rasen gespielt. Gewonnen hat, wer am Ende des Spiels die meisten Punkte gemacht hat, wobei die Zählweise für Ausländer oft etwas gewöhnungsbedürftig ist, da auf den Tafeln am Spielfeldrand Tore und Punkte getrennt voneinander angegeben werden. In 2,50 Meter Höhe verläuft eine Querstange zwischen den Torpfosten. Ihre Werbung auf irish-net — Your advertisement on irish-net. Man hat keine Angst vor Ausschreitungen. Die Pause beträgt 5 bzw.

Gaelic Football Video

This is Gaelic Football - Best Goals & Points Es sind Mannschaftssportarte n, die schnelles Tempo , Geschick und eine unvergleichliche Leidenschaft miteinander kombinieren. Aber das ist zu riskant. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Das knochenbrecherische Spektakel ist weit mehr als nur ein Spiel - es ist die eigentliche Staatsreligion des Landes. Erfahre mehr darüber, wie deine Kommentardaten verarbeitet werden. Die Zählweise ist etwas gewöhnungsbedürftig. Sie bewegen sich auf das Stadion zu wie Pilger, behutsam Schritt für Schritt, andächtig schweigend. Hinweise für Football-Spiele finden sich sowohl für das Sollte der Ball über das Netz, zwischen das Gestänge gelangen, dann erhält man 1 Punkt. In Irland, versteht man allerdings nicht warum man sich nach einer Sportveranstaltung schlagen möchte. Das Spiel wird mit einem sogenannten Kick-out fortgesetzt, wenn eine Mannschaft ein Tor oder Punkt erzielt hat von der Meter-Linie oder wenn die angreifende Mannschaft den Ball ins Toraus spielt aus dem jeweiligen Torraum. Gaelic Football war immer auch eine Demonstration der Iren für Unabhängigkeit und für eine Wiedervereinigung der 32 Grafschaften.

Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools. Third, it was teachers, students and former students from these schools who first codified football games, to enable matches to be played between schools.

Finally, it was at English public schools that the division between "kicking" and "running" or "carrying" games first became clear.

The earliest evidence that games resembling football were being played at English public schools — mainly attended by boys from the upper, upper-middle and professional classes — comes from the Vulgaria by William Herman in Herman had been headmaster at Eton and Winchester colleges and his Latin textbook includes a translation exercise with the phrase "We wyll playe with a ball full of wynde".

Richard Mulcaster , a student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century advocate of football".

Mulcaster's writings refer to teams "sides" and "parties" , positions "standings" , a referee "judge over the parties" and a coach " trayning maister ".

Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:. In , David Wedderburn , a teacher from Aberdeen , mentioned elements of modern football games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula.

Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".

There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the charging and holding of opposing players "drive that man back".

A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby 's Book of Games , written in about The gates are called Goals. He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness".

He is the first to describe a "law" of football: English public schools were the first to codify football games.

In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by foot or by hand.

They could only dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, Rugby , Harrow and Cheltenham , during between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.

They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline.

Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules.

Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit. Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools and were changed over time with each new intake of pupils.

Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which the ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenham , while others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the ball was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.

The division into these two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played.

For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloisters , making it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games.

William Webb Ellis , a pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the ball in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.

This act is usually said to be the beginning of Rugby football, but there is little evidence that it occurred, and most sports historians believe the story to be apocryphal.

The act of 'taking the ball in his arms' is often misinterpreted as 'picking the ball up' as it is widely believed that Webb Ellis' 'crime' was handling the ball, as in modern soccer, however handling the ball at the time was often permitted and in some cases compulsory, [53] the rule for which Webb Ellis showed disregard was running forward with it as the rules of his time only allowed a player to retreat backwards or kick forwards.

The boom in rail transport in Britain during the s meant that people were able to travel further and with less inconvenience than they ever had before.

Inter-school sporting competitions became possible. However, it was difficult for schools to play each other at football, as each school played by its own rules.

The solution to this problem was usually that the match be divided into two halves, one half played by the rules of the host "home" school, and the other half by the visiting "away" school.

The modern rules of many football codes were formulated during the mid- or late- 19th century. This also applies to other sports such as lawn bowls, lawn tennis, etc.

The major impetus for this was the patenting of the world's first lawnmower in This allowed for the preparation of modern ovals, playing fields, pitches, grass courts, etc.

Apart from Rugby football, the public school codes have barely been played beyond the confines of each school's playing fields. However, many of them are still played at the schools which created them see Surviving UK school games below.

Public schools' dominance of sports in the UK began to wane after the Factory Act of , which significantly increased the recreation time available to working class children.

Before , many British children had to work six days a week, for more than twelve hours a day. These changes mean that working class children had more time for games, including various forms of football.

Sports clubs dedicated to playing football began in the 18th century, for example London's Gymnastic Society which was founded in the midth century and ceased playing matches in The first documented club to bear in the title a reference to being a 'football club' were called "The Foot-Ball Club" who were located in Edinburgh , Scotland, during the period — In , three boys at Rugby school were tasked with codifying the rules then being used at the school.

These were the first set of written rules or code for any form of football. One of the longest running football fixture is the Cordner-Eggleston Cup , contested between Melbourne Grammar School and Scotch College, Melbourne every year since It is believed by many to also be the first match of Australian rules football , although it was played under experimental rules in its first year.

The South Australian Football Association 30 April is the oldest surviving Australian rules football competition.

The oldest surviving soccer trophy is the Youdan Cup and the oldest national football competition is the English FA Cup The Football League is recognised as the longest running Association Football league.

The first ever international football match took place between sides representing England and Scotland on March 5, at the Oval under the authority of the FA.

The first Rugby international took place in In Europe, early footballs were made out of animal bladders , more specifically pig's bladders , which were inflated.

Later leather coverings were introduced to allow the balls to keep their shape. Richard Lindon's wife is said to have died of lung disease caused by blowing up pig's bladders.

In , the U. The ball was to prove popular in early forms of football in the U. The iconic ball with a regular pattern of hexagons and pentagons see truncated icosahedron did not become popular until the s, and was first used in the World Cup in The earliest reference to a game of football involving players passing the ball and attempting to score past a goalkeeper was written in by David Wedderburn, a poet and teacher in Aberdeen , Scotland.

Creswell, who having brought the ball up the side then kicked it into the middle to another of his side, who kicked it through the posts the minute before time was called" [73] Passing was a regular feature of their style [74] By early the Engineers were the first football team renowned for "play[ing] beautifully together" [75] A double pass is first reported from Derby school against Nottingham Forest in March , the first of which is irrefutably a short pass: In , at Cambridge University , Mr.

Thring , who were both formerly at Shrewsbury School , called a meeting at Trinity College, Cambridge , with 12 other representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury.

An eight-hour meeting produced what amounted to the first set of modern rules, known as the Cambridge rules. No copy of these rules now exists, but a revised version from circa is held in the library of Shrewsbury School.

Handling was only allowed when a player catches the ball directly from the foot entitling them to a free kick and there was a primitive offside rule, disallowing players from "loitering" around the opponents' goal.

The Cambridge rules were not widely adopted outside English public schools and universities but it was arguably the most significant influence on the Football Association committee members responsible for formulating the rules of Association football.

By the late s, many football clubs had been formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various codes of football.

Sheffield Football Club , founded in in the English city of Sheffield by Nathaniel Creswick and William Prest, was later recognised as the world's oldest club playing association football.

The code was largely independent of the public school rules, the most significant difference being the lack of an offside rule. The code was responsible for many innovations that later spread to association football.

These included free kicks , corner kicks , handball, throw-ins and the crossbar. At this time a series of rule changes by both the London and Sheffield FAs gradually eroded the differences between the two games until the adoption of a common code in There is archival evidence of "foot-ball" games being played in various parts of Australia throughout the first half of the 19th century.

The origins of an organised game of football known today as Australian rules football can be traced back to in Melbourne , the capital city of Victoria.

Through publicity and personal contacts Wills was able to co-ordinate football matches in Melbourne that experimented with various rules, [86] the first of which was played on July 31, Following these matches, organised football in Melbourne rapidly increased in popularity.

Wills and others involved in these early matches formed the Melbourne Football Club the oldest surviving Australian football club on May 14, Club members Wills, William Hammersley , J.

Thompson and Thomas H. Smith met with the intention of forming a set of rules that would be widely adopted by other clubs. The committee debated rules used in English public school games; Wills pushed for various rugby football rules he learnt during his schooling.

The first rules share similarities with these games, and were shaped to suit to Australian conditions. Harrison , a seminal figure in Australian football, recalled that his cousin Wills wanted "a game of our own".

The Melbourne football rules were widely distributed and gradually adopted by the other Victorian clubs. The rules were updated several times during the s to accommodate the rules of other influential Victorian football clubs.

A significant redraft in by H. Harrison's committee accommodated the Geelong Football Club 's rules, making the game then known as "Victorian Rules" increasingly distinct from other codes.

It soon adopted cricket fields and an oval ball, used specialised goal and behind posts, and featured bouncing the ball while running and spectacular high marking.

The game spread quickly to other Australian colonies. Outside its heartland in southern Australia, the code experienced a significant period of decline following World War I but has since grown throughout Australia and in other parts of the world , and the Australian Football League emerged as the dominant professional competition.

During the early s, there were increasing attempts in England to unify and reconcile the various public school games. Thring, who had been one of the driving forces behind the original Cambridge Rules, was a master at Uppingham School and he issued his own rules of what he called "The Simplest Game" these are also known as the Uppingham Rules.

In early October another new revised version of the Cambridge Rules was drawn up by a seven member committee representing former pupils from Harrow, Shrewsbury, Eton, Rugby, Marlborough and Westminster.

The aim of the Association was to establish a single unifying code and regulate the playing of the game among its members.

Following the first meeting, the public schools were invited to join the association. All of them declined, except Charterhouse and Uppingham.

In total, six meetings of the FA were held between October and December After the third meeting, a draft set of rules were published.

However, at the beginning of the fourth meeting, attention was drawn to the recently published Cambridge Rules of The Cambridge rules differed from the draft FA rules in two significant areas; namely running with carrying the ball and hacking kicking opposing players in the shins.

The two contentious FA rules were as follows:. A player shall be entitled to run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal if he makes a fair catch, or catches the ball on the first bound; but in case of a fair catch, if he makes his mark he shall not run.

If any player shall run with the ball towards his adversaries' goal, any player on the opposite side shall be at liberty to charge, hold, trip or hack him, or to wrest the ball from him, but no player shall be held and hacked at the same time.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA.

After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.

However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school.

Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A. Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.

It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.

In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.

Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.

Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.

The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.

In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'.

These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

The first legal reference to football in Ireland was in , when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Novum Castrum de Leuan the New Castle of the Lyons or Newcastle was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard.

A field near Newcastle, South Dublin is still known as the football field. By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably. The games had grown in popularity and were widely played.

Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to guineas Prior, The earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in , in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted.

However even "foot-ball" was banned [8] by the severe Sunday Observance Act of , which imposed a fine of one shilling a substantial amount at the time for those caught playing sports.

It proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath , at Slane , in , about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta".

A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, and years later there were accounts of games played between County sides Prior, By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid , were popular in Kerry , especially the Dingle Peninsula.

Ferris described two forms of caid: During the s and s, rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of rugby, and the rules of the English Football Association were codified in and distributed widely.

By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon, even in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game", which even allowed tripping.

Association football started to take hold, especially in Ulster , in the s. Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, and the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules, which was adapted by other clubs in the city.

Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst shape at the time of the association's foundation GAA Museum, Irish forms of football were not formally arranged into an organised playing code by the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA until The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject "foreign" particularly English imports.

The first Gaelic football rules, showing the influence of hurling and a desire to differentiate from association football—for example in their lack of an offside rule —were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on 7 February The rules of the aforementioned Commercials Club became the basis for these official Gaelic Football rules who, unsurprisingly, won the inaugural All-Ireland Senior Football Final representing County Limerick.

By , Wembley Stadium hosted annual exhibition games of Gaelic football in England, before tens of thousands of spectators. Ladies' Gaelic football has become increasingly popular with women since the s.

The relationship between Gaelic football and Australian rules football and the question of whether they have shared origins has been debated.

What is known is that in , Australian journalist, broadcaster and VFL umpire Harry Beitzel , inspired by watching the All-Ireland senior football final on television, sent an Australian team known as the "Galahs" to play an Irish team, which was the first recorded major interaction between the two codes.

What then followed is the current International Rules Series between players of both codes and utilizing rules from both codes, which also gives them a chance to represent their country.

The two countries take turns hosting the series, and both countries' and sports' respective most prestigious venues — Croke Park and the Melbourne Cricket Ground MCG — have hosted series Tests.

What is known as the Irish experiment also occurred, with Australian rules football clubs recruiting Gaelic football players.

Irishmen who have distinguished themselves in both codes include Dublin's Jim Stynes — a minor All-Ireland football champion who became the Brownlow Medallist , a recipient of the Medal of the Order of Australia and a member of Melbourne 's Team of the Century — and Kerry's Tadhg Kennelly , the first man to become both a senior All-Ireland football champion and an AFL Premiership player with Sydney , the Swans' first flag in 72 years.

A Gaelic pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6—7 metres 20—23 feet high, set 6.

A net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts. The same pitch is used for hurling; the GAA, which organises both sports, decided this to facilitate dual usage.

Lines are marked at distances of 13 metres, 20 metres, and 45 metres 65 m in hurling from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams.

The majority of adult football and all minor and under matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games, which last for 70 minutes two halves of 35 minutes.

Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time two halves of 10 minutes. Juniors have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases.

Half-time lasts for about 5 or 10 minutes. Teams consist of fifteen players [12] a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs, a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward plus up to fifteen substitutes , of which six may be used.

As for younger teams or teams that do not have enough players for fifteen aside, it is not uncommon to play thirteen aside the same positions except without the full back and the full forward.

Each player is numbered 1—15, starting with the goalkeeper , who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his or her teammates. Up to 15 substitutes may be named on the team sheet, number 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper.

A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb.

In , the GAA introduced the 'mark' across the board in Gaelic football. Similar to the mark in Australian rules football , a player who catches the ball from a kick-out is awarded a free kick.

The rule in full states: The player awarded a 'Mark' shall have the options of a Taking a free kick or b Playing on immediately.

There are three main types of fouls in Gaelic Football, which can result in the ball being given to the other team, a player being cautioned, a player being removed from the field, or even the game being terminated.

Aggressive fouls are physical or verbal fouls committed by a player against an opponent or the referee. The player can be cautioned shown a yellow card , ordered off the pitch without a substitute red card , [16] or beginning 1 January ordered off the pitch with a substitution black card.

The following are considered dissent fouls:. If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire.

A point is scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or fisting it over, in which case the hand must be closed while striking the ball.

If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal , worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. A goal is scored by kicking the ball into the net, not by fist passing the ball into it.

The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format Goal Total-Point Total. To determine the score-line goals must be converted to points and added to the other points.

For example, in a match with a final score of Team A 0—21 Team B 4—8, Team A is the winner with 21 points, as Team B scored only 20 points 4 times 3, plus 8.

The level of tackling allowed is less robust than in rugby. Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:.

The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players. The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time signalled to him by the referee and the players substituted using an electronic board.

The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags.

Other officials are not obliged to indicate any misdemeanours to the referee; they are only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed that has occurred without the referee's knowledge.

Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee. The Team of the Century was nominated in by Sunday Independent readers and selected by a panel of experts including journalists and former players.

The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions.

Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country. The Team of the Millennium was a team chosen in by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists.

The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in up to the Millennium year, Gaelic sports at all levels are amateur, in the sense that the athletes even those playing at elite level do not receive payment for their performance.

The main competitions at all levels of Gaelic football are the League and the Championship. Of these it is the Championship a knock-out tournament that tends to attain the most prestige.

The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parochial basis. Local clubs compete against other clubs in their county with the intention of winning the County Club Championship at senior, junior or intermediate levels for adults or under, minor or under-age levels for children.

At the fifth meeting it was proposed that these two rules be removed. Most of the delegates supported this, but F. Campbell , the representative from Blackheath and the first FA treasurer, objected.

However, the motion to ban running with the ball in hand and hacking was carried and Blackheath withdrew from the FA. After the final meeting on 8 December, the FA published the " Laws of Football ", the first comprehensive set of rules for the game later known as Association Football.

The term "soccer", in use since the late 19th century, derives from an Oxford University abbreviation of "Association".

The first FA rules still contained elements that are no longer part of association football, but which are still recognisable in other games such as Australian football and rugby football: In Britain , by , there were about 75 clubs playing variations of the Rugby school game.

However, there was no generally accepted set of rules for rugby until , when 21 clubs from London came together to form the Rugby Football Union RFU.

The first official RFU rules were adopted in June These rules allowed passing the ball. They also included the try , where touching the ball over the line allowed an attempt at goal, though drop-goals from marks and general play, and penalty conversions were still the main form of contest.

As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.

For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.

The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.

The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.

In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.

One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A.

Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football.

On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules. It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football.

During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.

On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.

In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.

Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.

President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.

Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game. In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.

In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.

One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.

Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.

Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.

The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.

The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.

Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.

This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.

In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.

The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.

The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.

Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.

The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.

The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.

It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.

Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players.

In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.

However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.

During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.

The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league. In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.

In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.

Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.

Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region.

So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.

In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.

The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.

Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.

The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'. These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.

They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target. These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.

Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports. This article is about the overall concept of games called football.

For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.

Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games. Origins of Australian rules football. The first football international, Scotland versus England.

Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. History of rugby union. History of Gaelic football.

History of rugby league. Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.

Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Journal of Sports Science. Soccer — or should we say football — must change". Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 11 January Football at Winchester, Eton and Harrow".

The International Journal of the History of Sport. Journal of Sports Sciences. Science and Football Second ed. Retrieved 14 December Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity.

University of Hawaii Press. Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Violence in Early Modern Europe — Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France.

Retrieved January 11, , from http: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. Sports in the Western World.

University of Illinois Press. Archived from the original on Women, Football and Europe: Histories, Equity and Experience.

International Football Institute Series. Encyclopedia of British Football. The game was this: The First Hundred Years.

Archived from the original on November 21, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved June 9, Archived June 16, , at the Wayback Machine. It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs.

However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon , who was actually Richard Lindon's son, and created the ball in ref: Soccer Ball World , whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in ref: Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders.

This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.

History of football from the beginnings to From Sheffield with Love. Football, the First Hundred Years. Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on June 25, Archived from the original on June 11, Running with the Ball: Hacking — a history Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved July 1, The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to Professional Football Researchers Association.

Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on February 28, Official Site of the Canadian Football League. Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 13 July The History of Sports.

Rutgers Through The Years. The Professional Football Researchers Association. Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 1 December American Football —" PDF.

National Football League Properties, Inc. College Football Historical Society: Archived from the original on 22 April Retrieved 28 September December 17, "ASA chairman Frank Lowy said the symbolic move would bring Australia into line with the vast majority of other countries which call the sport football.

Archived from the original on 22 September Archived from the original on 5 March Archived from the original PDF on 15 September Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 11 October It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.

Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original PDF on April 26, Retrieved April 26, TV By The Numbers.

Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 19 February Archived from the original on 14 March The Economic and Social Research Institute.

Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 17 October But the game was played under rules based on the association football rules of the time.

During the latter half of the s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby code. But various rules of rugby had existed until the foundation of the Rugby Football Union in Apart from this, there are also rules [2] established by IFAF.

On the other hand, there are also historians who support the theory that Australian rules football and Gaelic Football have some common origins.

See Origins of Australian rules football. Archived from the original on 21 October Find more about Football at Wikipedia's sister projects.

Sport Governing bodies Sportspeople National sport. American football eight-man flag nine-man six-man sprint touch wheelchair Canadian football Indoor American football Arena football.

Beach Rugby league masters mod nines sevens tag wheelchair Rugby union American flag mini sevens snow tag touch tens Touch Wheelchair.

Lines are marked at distances of 13 metres, 20 metres, and 45 metres 65 m in hurling from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams.

The majority of adult football and all minor and under matches last for 60 minutes, divided into two halves of 30 minutes, with the exception of senior inter-county games, which last for 70 minutes two halves of 35 minutes.

Draws are decided by replays or by playing 20 minutes of extra time two halves of 10 minutes. Juniors have a half of 20 minutes or 25 minutes in some cases.

Half-time lasts for about 5 or 10 minutes. Teams consist of fifteen players [12] a goalkeeper, two corner backs, a full back, two wing backs, a centre back, two mid fielders, two wing forwards, a centre forward, two corner forwards and a full forward plus up to fifteen substitutes , of which six may be used.

As for younger teams or teams that do not have enough players for fifteen aside, it is not uncommon to play thirteen aside the same positions except without the full back and the full forward.

Each player is numbered 1—15, starting with the goalkeeper , who must wear a jersey colour different from that of his or her teammates.

Up to 15 substitutes may be named on the team sheet, number 16 usually being the reserve goalkeeper.

A hand pass is not a punch but rather a strike of the ball with the side of the closed fist, using the knuckle of the thumb. In , the GAA introduced the 'mark' across the board in Gaelic football.

Similar to the mark in Australian rules football , a player who catches the ball from a kick-out is awarded a free kick. The rule in full states: The player awarded a 'Mark' shall have the options of a Taking a free kick or b Playing on immediately.

There are three main types of fouls in Gaelic Football, which can result in the ball being given to the other team, a player being cautioned, a player being removed from the field, or even the game being terminated.

Aggressive fouls are physical or verbal fouls committed by a player against an opponent or the referee.

The player can be cautioned shown a yellow card , ordered off the pitch without a substitute red card , [16] or beginning 1 January ordered off the pitch with a substitution black card.

The following are considered dissent fouls:. If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire.

A point is scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or fisting it over, in which case the hand must be closed while striking the ball.

If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal , worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire.

A goal is scored by kicking the ball into the net, not by fist passing the ball into it. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format Goal Total-Point Total.

To determine the score-line goals must be converted to points and added to the other points. For example, in a match with a final score of Team A 0—21 Team B 4—8, Team A is the winner with 21 points, as Team B scored only 20 points 4 times 3, plus 8.

The level of tackling allowed is less robust than in rugby. Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent's hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:.

The referee is responsible for starting and stopping play, recording the score, awarding frees and booking and sending off players.

The fourth official is responsible for overseeing substitutions, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time signalled to him by the referee and the players substituted using an electronic board.

The umpires are responsible for judging the scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: A disallowed score is indicated by crossing the green and white flags.

Other officials are not obliged to indicate any misdemeanours to the referee; they are only permitted to inform the referee of violent conduct they have witnessed that has occurred without the referee's knowledge.

Such decisions can only be made at the discretion of the referee. The Team of the Century was nominated in by Sunday Independent readers and selected by a panel of experts including journalists and former players.

The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.

The Team of the Millennium was a team chosen in by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in up to the Millennium year, Gaelic sports at all levels are amateur, in the sense that the athletes even those playing at elite level do not receive payment for their performance.

The main competitions at all levels of Gaelic football are the League and the Championship. Of these it is the Championship a knock-out tournament that tends to attain the most prestige.

The basic unit of each game is organised at the club level, which is usually arranged on a parochial basis. Local clubs compete against other clubs in their county with the intention of winning the County Club Championship at senior, junior or intermediate levels for adults or under, minor or under-age levels for children.

A club may field more than one team, for example a club may field a team at senior level and a "seconds" team at junior or intermediate level.

This format is laid out in the table below:. Though the island of Ireland was partitioned between two states by the British parliament in , the organisation of Gaelic games like that of most cultural organisations and religions continues on an All-Ireland basis.

At the national level, Ireland's Gaelic games are organised in 32 GAA counties , most of which are identical in name and extent to the 32 administrative counties on which local government throughout the island was based until the late 20th century.

Clubs are also located throughout the world, in other parts of the United States , in Britain , in Canada , in Asia , in Australasia and in continental Europe.

The level at which county teams compete against each other is referred to as inter-county i. A county panel—a team of 15 players, plus a similar number of substitutes—is formed from the best players playing at club level in each county.

The most prestigious inter-county competition in Gaelic football is the All-Ireland Championship. Nearly all counties contest this tournament on an annual basis, with crowds of people thronging venues the length and breadth of Ireland—the most famous of these stadiums being Croke Park —to support their local county team, a team comprising players selected from the clubs in that county.

These modified knock-out games start as provincial championships contested by counties against other counties in their respective province, the four Irish provinces of Ulster , Munster , Leinster and Connacht.

The four victors in these then progress automatically to the All-Ireland series. In the past, the team winning each provincial championship would play one of the others, at a stage known as the All-Ireland semi-finals, with the winning team from each game playing each other in the famed All-Ireland Final to determine the outright winner.

Now the four victorious teams at provincial level enter the recently created All-Ireland quarter-finals instead, where they compete against the four remaining teams from the All-Ireland Qualifiers to progress to the All-Ireland semi-finals and then the All-Ireland Final.

This re-organisation means that one team may defeat another team in an early stage of the championship, yet be defeated and knocked out of the tournament by the same team at a later stage.

It also means a team may be defeated in an early stage of the championship, yet be crowned All-Ireland champions—as Tyrone were in and The secondary competition at inter-county level is the National League.

The National Football League is held every spring and groups counties in four divisions according to their relative strength.

As at local county levels of Gaelic football, the League at national level is less prestigious than the Championship—however, in recent years attendances have grown, as has interest from the public and from players.

This is due in part to the adoption of a February—April timetable, in place of the former November start, as well as the provision of Division 2 final stages.

There are also All-Ireland championships for county teams at Junior , Under and Minor levels, and provincial and national club championships, contested by the teams that win their respective county championships.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Gaelic football, hurling and camogie positions. Players are cautioned by a yellow card, ordered off the pitch without a substitute by a red card, or ordered off the pitch with a substitution by a black card.

Scoring in Gaelic games. Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 12 April Accessed 19 September The History of Gaelic Football.

A History of Gaelic Football. Sport Management and Related Topic Journal. Retrieved 3 January Archived from the original PDF on How to get into Gaelic football".